The word “indicated” comes from the use of “Indicator Diagrams” that before the electronic era were mechanically plotted to indicate the variation in steam pressure inside a cylinder against the piston position as it sweeps through the piston over the length of its stroke. Separate diagrams for both ends of the cylinder were usually being plotted on the same sheet of paper.
The cylinder’s power output is calculated from the area contained within the plotted curve. Thus it can be deduced that a locomotive’s power output can be increased by increasing the area contained inside the Indicator Diagram.
An example of a typical Indicator Diagram (single ended) is shown below which also points out the four phases of the cylinder cycle:
Admission which occurs from the moment that the steam inlet port opens (near the beginning of the piston stroke) until the moment of “cut off” when it closes. At the beginning of the piston stroke, the cylinder pressure is (or should be) the same as the steam chest pressure. As the piston moves, some reduction of pressure may occur if the steam chest and/or the ports are too small.
Expansion which occurs from the moment of “cut off” until the exhaust port opens (near the end of the piston stroke). During this time, the steam in the cylinder expands adiabatically (meaning no heat input) resulting in the reduction of its pressure. The relationship between pressure and swept volume can usually be estimated using the equation PVn=K, where P is the steam pressure; V is the cylinder volume (including clearance volume); n is a constant, normally assumed to be 1.3 and K is a constant.
Exhaust which occurs on the return stroke between the moment the exhaust port opens until it closes again. During the exhaust phase, the cylinder pressure – or “back pressure” – is relatively constant, being governed by the steam flow through the exhaust ports and blast pipe. It can be readily seen that the area within the diagram can be dramatically increased by reducing the back pressure during the exhaust phase. This is the reason why simple modifications such as the fitting of double chimneys or Kylpor exhaust systems, result in immediate and dramatic improvement in locomotive performance.
Compression which occurs between the moment that the exhaust port closes until the inlet port opens. It is clear that the area within the Indicator Diagram can be maximised by making the exhaust phase as long as possible and the compression phase as short as possible. Some compression may nevertheless be desirable, as in the case of the 5AT where it provides “cushioning” for the pistons, counteracting the inertial forces that occur at the ends of each stroke and which would otherwise cause crank-pin overstress at very high speeds.
The shape of the indicator diagram and losses that are represented by it, are discussed on several separate pages including:
- Clearance Volume
- Wall Effects and Condensation
- Triangular Losses
- Incomplete Expansion
- Steam Tightness